Q and A Forum - Please ask the community anything

The Outreach Evaluation hub wants to share information on options and generate solutions towards better evaluation practice. We thought one way to open up a discussion thread is to share some links to our favourite evaluation resources, whether it be articles, guidance documents, case studies, helpful websites... or any other useful materials.

Do you have things you feel might be of value to the Uni Connect evaluation community of practice? Can’t wait to hear about them…

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If you want to establish your onlinepresence, then there are a few simple things you can do. The first thing youshould do is make a page on any social media, such as Facebook or Instagram.Later on, you can dive into something more intricate like learning how to make a Wikipedia page for my company. If you wish to garner a lot of audience, then focus oncreating SEO content. As it would help you appear in search engine pageresults. Then, make sure you have a blog with your website, as it wouldincrease your SEO rankings. Did you find this helpful?
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A voiceover within animations is often kept to assist the viewer at flowing with the video. This allows them to develop a deeper understanding of the narrative but also enables them to invest their attention to the video. To make a whiteboard animation you need to ensure that you hire a voiceover actor that does not have a monotonous voice as that would bore the viewer. But instead, go for someone who has a relevant tone to the context of the content. How do you think voiceovers help viewers and animations?

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Wikipedia is a leading source of knowledge for people. It is a trusted site for millions and continues to grow even more with each passing day. There are more than 51 million pages on Wikipedia. You can also be a part of this network and  create a Wikipedia profile . The steps are very easy. You need to do proper research and for that, you need a Wikipedia account. The next is to write content about the page and make it happening. After the content, apply for the page and submit it to be approved.

What are your views on creating a Wikipedia profile?

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When the teaching staff of an educational center tries to plan how to write my paper for me, it is common to talk about aspects such as the objectives to be achieved, the content to be taught, the teaching method ...

However, it is common to leave aside or ignore how to organize the knowledge that will be presented during the year, limiting themselves to teaching them one after the other and with the sole intention of waiting for the students to be able to memorize it and demonstrate it in an exam.

In recent years there has been an attempt to change this way of teaching, trying to promote meaningfully learning by making sure that not only what is given in class is memorized, but that it is understood and related to other knowledge. It is in this context that takes special importance the concept of the spiral curriculum, a way of organizing the knowledge of the academic year that we will see in more detail in this article.

What is a spiral resume?

The spiral curriculum is an educational program in which a review of the previously explained knowledge is made during the course. This review is done iteratively, that is, in class the notions and topics previously seen are repeatedly addressed.

One should not fall into the mistake of thinking that this type of curriculum implies the mere repetition of the knowledge given over and over again in a superficial way, hoping that the students will memorize point by semicolon by comma what has been explained to them. In the spiral curriculum, the intention is to establish knowledge by deepening it, inviting reflection and investigation.

The first person to describe this idea was Jerome Bruner in 1960. This New York psychologist observed that teachers who taught math, history, and science and were able to pass their knowledge on successfully shared, to a greater or lesser extent, the following teaching methodology.

First, they presented a series of basic ideas or operations in an intuitive way. After mastering these basic notions, they were gradually reformulated with greater complexity, in addition to being connected with other previously acquired knowledge. As a result of this process, the aforementioned subjects were successfully learned, no matter how much content they had and how difficult they might seem.

With this method of organizing knowledge, Bruner defended the idea that courses should be fostered around the learning of socially valued issues, principles, and values. The purpose of this was to enable the students to learn useful knowledge, which they knew how to apply in their daily lives and would facilitate them to function as socially adopted adults.

Key features

The main characteristics of this type of educational curriculum are described below.

1. Content review

Throughout the entire course, students see the same theme or idea on several occasions.

Throughout the entire course, the students return to see, on several occasions, the topics already given previously.

Thus, by repeating the explanations of knowledge, it is possible to see to what extent the students have learned it and detect possible doubts that may exist.

2. Progressive difficulty

In the beginning, the theme is introduced in a simple and basic way, with the intention that the students can get a general idea about the given notion.

Later, when the subject is dealt with again, it will be done in a way in which there is more complexity, introducing more details and increasing the difficulty.

Thus, as the complexity of the syllabus progressively increases, learning occurs in a more fluid way, without running the risk of the student getting burned by not understanding what is new explained in class?

3. The new is related to the old

New information and skills are introduced, which are related to the knowledge given in previous phases of the spiral.

What was learned at the beginning of the course, that is, in the first loops of the spiral, is directly linked to what will be learned later.

If the first knowledge is properly introduced, the student will not feel oversaturated when it is explained again in a more complex way in the future.

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Academic Guidance

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Learning to write essays well requires knowing a number of preliminary writing skills, as well as knowing what the different types of essays are and how to plan them. Teaching essay writing requires knowing how to simplify and improve those skills so that students can write effective texts. The following sections on teaching essay writing will give you tips on where to start, an overview of the writing skills needed, and the steps to plan and write an essay.


Strengthen your own understanding of the writing structure and process. Before you can teach someone how to write, you have to understand well what to teach and how to do it.
  • If you are the teacher of a class, you can strengthen your knowledge of how to teach writing through professional training and classes in college.
  • If you are teaching your children at home, find a writing curriculum that will help you teach them the preliminary skills needed to write essays and other types of text. It will also help you assess your children's writing skills so that you can find a suitable starting point.
Teache how to write complete sentences. Since writing essays generally requires constructing complete sentences, students have to learn to construct effective complete sentences. They must understand the types of sentences that exist (declarative, imperative, interrogative, exclamatory), the active and passive voice, and must have the ability to make subjects and verbs agree well.

Teach them how to organize sentences into paragraphs. When students have mastered writing complete sentences, they will have to learn to string them together to form a paragraph. They can use this bullying essay as an example for developing this skill. They must learn how to follow one sentence with another and then another that expands on the idea presented in the first sentence. They will also need to know how to arrange the sentences so that the previous ones lead to the idea that is presented in the final.

Teach them how to organize the paragraphs and how to move from one to another. When students can write coherent paragraphs, they are ready to learn how to connect the paragraphs so that each one leads to the next and the one that follows is a stronger expression than the last. A transition sentence can be placed as the last of a preceding paragraph or the first of one that follows, or both.
  • Encourage students to connect two, three, four, and five paragraphs little by little to build a coherent essay. As students become more familiar with the format, help them learn how to write the introduction, present the background information, the information that confirms their beliefs, and the information that contradicts them, and then summarize as a conclusion.
Teaches how to observe and record observations. To start, you can teach students how to observe and write about what is in front of them, and then compare their written observations with those of their peers and with professional writers who are seeing the same thing.

Teach them to express their opinions in writing. Show them the difference between writing facts and opinions. Students should learn when and when it is inappropriate to include their opinions in what they write and how to express them in a courteous and professional manner.

Teach them how to research for an essay. Students have to learn to select materials that they can write about, how to read for information, how to analyze it, and then organize the notes in an outline.
  • Although it is possible to make diagrams in the head, students must first learn to do them on paper so that they can review how the rehearsals are developed with the initial plan. They must learn to modify the scheme first and then the same essay as they get new information that makes them review their work.

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Writing is the dispute of thoughts on a page - it is an arduous process that seeks to bring abstract ideas to the tangible world.

Writing is valuable. It doesn't just transfer insights, it creates them. And since “good words are worth a lot and cost little,” choosing the right words is worth the price you pay in time (and sanity).

In the Help Scout, we examine the quality of writing custom college essays through about this the same demanding lenses that we use to assess the quality of the code.

I certainly didn't understand this writing thing - not even close - but thanks to the pleasant feedback from readers, here are some common signs that your writing is going in the right direction:

1. Brevity. Soul. Wit.

Few things get in the way of writing more than spreading good ideas with many words.

2. Writing is not showing your vocabulary.

"When you write you must pretend that you, the writer, see something in the world that is interesting, that you are directing your reader's attention to that thing in the world, and that you are doing it through conversation," says Steven Pinker, a Harvard psychologist. Writing is not meant to prove ownership of a thesaurus - it is the selective transcription of thoughts.

3. In having your cake and eating it too.

The best writing is one that appeals at first sight but also rewards careful study. "A well thought out list" may seem like a paradox, but, like a movie, you can watch it again a dozen times, good hooks to write easily, but hide gifts for a keen mind.

4. Don't bury the lead.

Before the pen on the page or the fingers on the keyboard, you should start by knowing what you are trying to say. Each written piece must have the thesis, the value proposition, totally clear from the beginning. The journey to the end of your essay should be rewarding for other reasons, in addition to finding out what you are trying to do.

5. To write more 'damn good sentences', read them.

In the book How to Write a Sentence, New York Times columnist Stanley Fish laments that "many educators approach teaching the art of writing a memorable the sentence in the wrong way - based on rules rather than examples." Garbage inside, garbage outside; you will produce better phrases if you spend time reading it.

6. 'In other words,' you should have used other words.

Insight is memorable when it can be adopted directly - don't fill it with "essentially", "basically" or "in other words". Use the right words the first time.

7. Don't tell people how to travel; show them your vacation photos.

The display of topics you know little about makes you insincere - your deception drains from each paragraph to an informed reader. Instead, jump out of your soapbox and don't preach, be Sherpa; share what you've learned honestly. People love to take a journey.

8. An idea is nothing without a reaction.

The reactions are oxygen for writing. Until you receive feedback on what you said, your analysis can reveal a lot. Be prepared for criticism and criticism; a great job depends on the willingness to be judged.

9. 'Just writing' is tiring advice, but still necessary.

If you are looking for a way to facilitate hard work, you will not find it in writing. You will struggle with the blank page until your butt falls off the chair, but until that day, stay seated and get the job done.

10. Tortuous endings can impair good writing; approach them quickly.

I'm going to let Paul Graham deal with this: "Learn to recognize the approach of an ending, and when one appears, grab it."

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Hi All, One of our Uni Connect partners is planning to produce some podcasts for students to download. The question has been asked about how we can capture data on this. Having done some reading on downloadable podcasts it seem like any data capture will be minimal. There is the added factor of not wanting the process to seem onerous for students (i.e. another registration form to fill out). I just wondered if anyone had experience of capturing podcast data, what you collected and how you went about it? Any help would be much appreciated. Many thanks, Scott (neaco - Network for East Anglia Collaborative Outreach).
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Study Higher are considering whether we might be able to incentivise students accessing online resources during Lockdown to provide us with monitoring data via a secure Google form or similar. This might be something like being entered into a prize draw to win a £20 Amazon voucher if they can provide us with some basic monitoring data (e.g. full name, DOB, postcode, school, email address).

We would value thoughts and insights from other practitioners around the following questions:

a) Is incentivising in this way an ethical approach to data collection, especially under current circumstances? (Please note that we would not make access to resources contingent on students providing us with their data); 
b) If we were to implement such an incentive, whether it might be necessary to incorporate some T&Cs, or a if there's anything else we should consider to ensure compliance and that students are reassured of our taking an ethical approach to collecting their data.
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Hi All

Good morning. I am just in the process of preparing for a mid-year review of our partnerships local and network level evaluation of learner activity/interactions. I am hoping to use half of our next operational group meeting (due to take place virtually next Tuesday) to review our evaluation activities so far. I am hoping this will be an opportunity for operational colleagues to share good practice and also to open up further discussion of evaluation methods. 

Is anyone else planning something similar at the moment within their partnerships? And if not for this academic year do you have examples you might be happy to share of doing this in the past? 

I appreciate at the moment this is quite (!) challenging given the circumstances. But I think it's still useful (certainly for us as partnership) to undertake this work. 

Best Wishes

Ellen Randall

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Have you developed, or working on, tools and resources designed to support local outreach practitioners to do more activity level evaluations as part of their delivery? If so, we would like to hear from you about your materials and experiences of working with practitioners in this way. We are proposing to pool resources to support each other. Please get in touch by emailing j.moore8@exeter.ac.uk.
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What are your favourite evaluation tools?

The Outreach Evaluation hub wants to share information on options and generate solutions towards better evaluation practice. We thought one way to open up a discussion thread is to share some links to our favourite evaluation resources, whether it be articles, guidance documents, case studies, helpful websites... or any other useful materials. 

To start us off…

1) http://journals.sfu.ca/jmde/index.php/jmde_1/article/view/496
Article on Refining Theories of Change which talks about the similarities and differences between theories of changes and other management tools (such as logic models) and sets out the characteristics of stronger theories of change models.


The EEF’s You Tube presentation on using the Effect Size Calculator in Excel, provides useful instruction on how to calculate the effect size (a simple way of quantifying the difference between two groups that captures the size of any difference) using the Excel Effect Size Calculator – link to the excel effect size calculator file.

Do you have things you feel might be of value to the NCOP evaluation community of practice? Can’t wait to hear about them…

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